A.D. 1056 . This year Bishop Egelric resigned his bishopric at
Durham, and retired to Peterborough minster; and his brother
Egelwine succeeded him. The worthy Bishop Athelstan died on the
fourth before the ides of February; and his body lies at
Hereford. To him succeeded Leofgar, who was Earl Harold's mass-
priest. He wore his knapsack in his priesthood, until he was a
bishop. He abandoned his chrism and his rood -- his ghostly
weapons -- and took to his spear and to his sword, after his
bishophood; and so marched to the field against Griffin the Welsh
king. (79) But he was there slain, and his priests with him, and
Elnoth the sheriff, and many other good men with them; and the
rest fled. This was eight nights before midsummer. Difficult is
it to relate all the vexation and the journeying, the marching
and the fatigue, the fall of men, and of horses also, which the
whole army of the English suffered, until Earl Leofric, and Earl
Harold, and Bishop Eldred, came together and made peace between
them; so that Griffin swore oaths, that he would be a firm and
faithful viceroy to King Edward. Then Bishop Eldred took to the
bishopric which Leofgar had before eleven weeks and four days.
The same year died Cona the emperor; and Earl Odda, whose body
lies at Pershore, and who was admitted a monk before his end;
which was on the second before the calends of September; a good
man and virtuous and truly noble.

A.D. 1057 . This year came Edward Etheling, son of King Edmund,
to this land, and soon after died. His body is buried within St.
Paul's minster at London. He was brother's son to King Edward.
King Edmund was called Ironside for his valour. This etheling
King Knute had sent into Hungary, to betray him; but he there
grew in favour with good men, as God granted him, and it well
became him; so that he obtained the emperor's cousin in marriage,
and by her had a fair offspring. Her name was Agatha. We know
not for what reason it was done, that he should see his relation,
King Edward. Alas! that was a rueful time, and injurious to all
this nation -- that he ended his life so soon after he came to
England, to the misfortune of this miserable people. The same
year died Earl Leofric, on the second before the calends of
October; who was very wise before God, and also before the world;
and who benefited all this nation. (80) He lies at Coventry
(81): and his son Elgar took to his territory. This year died
Earl Ralph, on the twelfth before the calends of January; and
lies at Peterborough. Also died Bishop Heca, in Sussex; and
Egelric was elevated to his see. This year also died Pope
Victor; and Stephen was chosen pope, who was Abbot of Monut

((A.D. 1057 . In this year Edward Etheling, King Edmund's son,
came hither to land, and soon after died- and his body is buried
within St. Paul's minster at London. And Pope Victor died, and
Stephen [IX.] was chosen pope: he was Abbot of Mont-Cassino. And
Leofric the earl died, and Elgar his son succeeded to the earldom
which the father before held.))

A.D. 1058 . This year was Earl Elgar banished: but he soon came
in again by force, through Griffin's assistance: and a naval
armament came from Norway. It is tedious to tell how it all fell
out. In this same year Bishop Aldred consecrated the minster
church at Gloucester, which he himself had raised (82) to the
honour of God and St. Peter; and then went to Jerusalem (83) with
such dignity as no other man did before him, and betook himself
there to God. A worthy gift he also offered to our Lord's
sepulchre; which was a golden chalice of the value of five marks,
of very wonderful workmanship. In the same year died Pope
Stephen; and Benedict was appointed pope. He sent hither the
pall to Bishop Stigand; who as archbishop consecrated Egelric a
monk at Christ church, Bishop of Sussex; and Abbot Siward Bishop
of Rochester.

((A.D. 1058 . This year died Pope Stephen, and Benedict was
consecrated pope: the same sent hither to land a pall to
Archbishop Stigand. And in this year died Heca, Bishop of
Sussex; and Archbishop Stigand ordained Algeric, a monk at
Christchurch, Bishop of Sussex, and Abbot Siward Bishop of

A.D. 1059 . This year was Nicholas chosen pope, who had been
Bishop of Florence; and Benedict was expelled, who was pope
before. This year also was consecrated the steeple (84) at
Peterborough, on the sixteenth before the calends of November.

A.D. 1060 . This year was a great earthquake on the Translation
of St. Martin, and King Henry died in France. Kinsey, Archbishop
of York, died on the eleventh before the calends of January; and
he lies at Peterborough. Bishop Aldred succeeded to the see, and
Walter to that of Herefordshire. Dudoc also died, who was Bishop
of Somersetshire; and Gisa the priest was appointed in his stead.

A.D. 1061 . This year went Bishop Aldred to Rome after his pall;
which he received at the hands of Pope Nicholas. Earl Tosty and
his wife also went to Rome; and the bishop and the earl met with
great difficulty as they returned home. In the same year died
Bishop Godwin at St. Martin's, (85) on the seventh before the
ides of March; and in the self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of
St. Augustine's, in the Easterweek, on the fourteenth before the
calends of May. Pope Nicholas also died; and Alexander was
chosen pope, who was Bishop of Lucca. When word came to the king
that the Abbot Wulfric was dead, then chose he Ethelsy, a monk of
the old minster, to succeed; who followed Archbishop Stigand, and
was consecrated abbot at Windsor on St. Augustine s mass-day.

((A.D. 1061 . In this year died Dudoc, Bishop of Somerset, and
Giso succeeded. And in the same year died Godwin, Bishop of St.
Martin's, on the seventh before the ides of March. And in the
self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of St. Augustine's, within
the Easter week, on the fourteenth before the kalends of May.
When word came to the king that Abbot Wulfric was departed, then
chose he Ethelsy the monk thereto, from the Old-Minster, who then
followed Archbishop Stigand, and was consecrated abbot at
Windsor, on St. Augustine's mass-day.))

A.D. 1063 . This year went Earl Harold, after mid-winter, from
Gloucester to Rhyddlan; which belonged to Griffin: and that
habitation he burned, with his ships and all the rigging
belonging thereto; and put him to flight. Then in the gang-days
went Harold with his ships from Bristol about Wales; where he
made a truce with the people, and they gave him hostages. Tosty
meanwhile advanced with a land-force against them, and plundered
the land. But in the harvest of the same year was King Griffin
slain, on the nones of August, by his own men, through the war
that he waged with Earl Harold. He was king over all the Welsh
nation. And his head was brought to Earl Harold; who sent it to
the king, with his ship's head, and the rigging therewith. King
Edward committed the land to his two brothers, Blethgent and
Rigwatle; who swore oaths, and gave hostages to the king and to
the earl, that they would be faithful to him in all things, ready
to aid him everywhere by water and land, and would pay him such
tribute from the land as was paid long before to other kings.

((A.D. 1063 . This year went Harold the earl, and his brother
Tosty the earl, as well with a land-force as a shipforce, into
Wales, and they subdued the land; and the people delivered
hostages to them, and submitted; and went afterwards and slew
their King Griffin, and brought to Harold his head: and he
appointed another king thereto.))


79) This was no uncommon thing among the Saxon clergy, bishops
and all. The tone of elevated diction in which the writer
describes the military enterprise of Leofgar and his
companions, testifies his admiration.
(80) See more concerning him in Florence of Worcester. His lady,
Godiva, is better known at Coventry. See her story at large
in Bromton and Matthew of Westminster.
(81) He died at his villa at Bromleage (Bromley in
Staffordshire). -- Flor.
(82) He built a new church from the foundation, on a larger plan.
The monastery existed from the earliest times.
(83) Florence of Worcester says, that he went through Hungary to
(84) This must not be confounded with a spire-steeple. The
expression was used to denote a tower, long before spires
were invented.
(85) Lye interprets it erroneously the "festival" of St. Martin.
-- "ad S. Martini festum:" whereas the expression relates to
the place, not to the time of his death, which is mentioned
immediately afterwards.

Chronicle Years: 1053-55
Chronicle Year: 1065

History | Monarchs | Prime Ministers | Travel | London | Wales | Earth Mysteries
Church | News | People | Science | Arts | State | Catalog | Sports | Panorama | Links

Comments: e-mail us at history@britannia.com
1995, 1996, 1997 Britannia Internet Magazine, LLC