The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) enforce federal prohibitions against employment discrimination based on race, sex, and national origin, among other bases. The EEOC enforces Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (Title VII). OFCCP enforces Executive Order 11246.
For many years, the EEOC and OFCCP have collected data from certain private employers and federal contractors and subcontractors about their employees on the "Employer Information Report" or the EEO-1. The EEO-1 collects data about the number of employees by job category and by sex and race or ethnicity. To promote efficiency, the EEOC and OFCCP coordinate their collection of this data through a "Joint Reporting Committee." The EEOC is responsible for approval of the EEO-1 every three years under the Paperwork Reduction Act.
On September 29, 2016 the EEOC announced approval of a revised EEO-1, starting with the 2017 report, to collect summary pay data from employers, including federal contractors and subcontractors, with 100 or more employees. Summary pay data for private employers subject to Title VII jurisdiction will go to the EEOC. Summary pay data only for federal contractors and subcontractors subject to Executive Order 11246 will go to OFCCP.
The EEOC and the Joint Reporting Committee are committed to working with employers to ensure a successful transition to the new report. To give employers more time to transition, and allow for alignment with the W-2 reporting cycle, the EEO-1 deadline for the 2017 report will be March 31, 2018. Employers will have a total of 18 months-from September 30, 2016 (2016 report deadline) to March 31, 2018 (2017 report deadline) to make the change. The EEOC's complete explanation of this information collection, as submitted to the Office of Management Budget, is available at https://federalregister.gov/a/2016-16692.
Although there has been progress in combatting pay discrimination in the last 50 years, recent studies show that discrimination plays a role in explaining the pay gaps nationwide for women and, especially, for African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Such wage disparities also persist for men of color.
For example, studies find that, after controlling for factors such as education and work experience, pay declines when women enter an occupation dominated by men but that pay increases when men enter a field dominated by women. Studies also demonstrate racial bias in salary negotiations even after controlling for the applicants' objective qualifications for the position.
Too often, pay discrimination goes undetected because of a lack of information about what employees are paid. The EEOC and OFCCP are charged with the responsibility of enforcing federal prohibitions on pay discrimination including Title VII, the Equal Pay Act, and Executive Order 11246, but, until now, they lacked the employer-and establishment-specific data needed to assess allegations of pay discrimination. The revised EEO-1 report will help to fill this gap. In developing this proposal, the EEOC carefully considered what kind of data would be most important and considered its benefit relative to the potential burden on employers.
Starting with the 2017 report, which will be due on March 31, 2018, private employers including federal contractors and subcontractors with 100 or more employees will submit summary pay data.
Federal contractors and subcontractors with 50-99 employees will not submit summary pay data but will continue to report demographic data (sex and race or ethnicity) on the EEO-1 as they did before.
Federal contractors and subcontractors with 49 or fewer employees, and companies without federal contracts with 99 or fewer employees, will not be required to complete the EEO-1 report.
Employers will count their employees during the "workforce snapshot period." For reporting years 2016 and before, the "workforce snapshot period" was July 1 to September 30. Starting with the EEO-1 report of 2017 data, however, the "workforce snapshot period" will be October 1 to December 31, 2017. Each employer may choose any pay period during this three-month "workforce snapshot period" to count its full and part-time employees for the EEO-1 report.
The revised EEO-1 report has two new elements:
The 10 EEO-1 job categories have not changed with this revision. They are:
(1) Executive/Senior Level Officials and Managers;
(2) First/Mid Level Officials and Managers;
(5) Sales Workers;
(6) Administrative Support Workers;
(7) Craft Workers;
(9) Laborers and Helpers; and
(10) Service Workers.
To continue to assist employers categorizing specific jobs, the EEOC provides a guide classifying hundreds of jobs into the 10 EEO-1 job categories: https://www.eeoc.gov/employers/eeo1survey/jobclassguide.cfm.
Based on their experience completing, filing, and reviewing EEO-1reports for many years, EEO-1 filers as well as government agencies understand which jobs are included in which job categories for particular industries and regions.
The EEO-1 pay bands track the 12 pay bands used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the Occupation Employment Statistics survey:
(1) $19,239 and under;
(2) $19,240 - $24,439;
(3) $24,440 - $30,679;
(4) $30,680 - $38,999;
(5) $39,000 - $49,919;
(6) $49,920 - $62,919;
(7) $62,920 - $80,079;
(8) $80,080 - $101,919;
(9) $101,920 - $128,959;
(10) $128,960 - $163,799;
(11) $163,800 - $207,999; and
(12) $208,000 and over.
Employers will count the number of employees they have in each pay band for each job category. If no employees are in a job category or pay band, employers will leave the cell blank.
To identify the pay band on the revised EEO-1 in which to count an employee, employers will rely on the pay reported for income tax purposes that year in Box 1 of the W-2 form.
Note that wages earned after the conclusion of the last full pay period in December are often paid to employees in the next calendar year. For EEO-1 purposes, these wages will be reported for the same year in which they are reported for W-2 purposes.
After tallying the total number of employees in each pay band by job category, employers will enter this data in the appropriate columns of the EEO-1 report based on the sex and ethnicity or race of the employees. For example, a financial services firm may report that it has 10 Professionals in pay band 6, which is $49,920 - $62,919, who are men and black; and that it also has 35 Professionals in pay band 6 who are men and white.
Hours worked data is being collected so that the EEOC and the OFCCP can account for part-time and partial year employment when they analyze EEO-1 pay data.
For the EEO-1, hours worked will be counted by consulting employer records already required under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA):
Hours worked data will be reported on the EEO-1 by tallying the total number of hours worked by all the employees counted in each pay band, for the W-2 reporting year.
Employers will continue to file the EEO-1 report with the Joint Reporting Committee of the EEOC and the OFCCP.
Consistent with current reporting practices, employers will submit EEO-1 reports securely via the EEO-1 Online Filing System on the EEOC's website or utilize this portal to electronically transmit a data file containing the EEO-1 data.
The Joint Reporting Committee announced the file specifications for the revised EEO-1 collection on September 29, 2016. To see these file specifications, please visit: https://www.eeoc.gov/employers/eeo1survey/2017survey.cfm.
The Joint Reporting Committee and EEOC staff are available to answer questions from all EEO-1 stakeholders, including employers, payroll, HRIS experts, and software professionals. Individuals may submit questions or request assistance by contacting the EEO-1 Coordinator at: EEOC Survey Division -- Room 4SW22G, 131 M Street, N.E. Washington, D.C. 20507, or by email at: Suggestion Box on EEO-1 Additional Documentation or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The EEOC is committed to helping all EEO-1 filers successfully file their reports. The EEOC has provided resources to address questions on our website, and it will provide ongoing technical assistance to aid employers in their compliance efforts, including free webinars offered on October 20th and 26th.
Title VII forbids all EEOC officers and employees from making public any information, including EEO-1 data, before a Title VII proceeding is begun involving the information. Any violations of this prohibition by EEOC officers or staff are subject to criminal penalties including imprisonment. The EEOC imposes these conditions on all of its contractors, as well as on other federal agencies that request the data for legitimate law enforcement purposes.
The EEOC will provide OFCCP with summary pay data (including hours worked) only for federal contractors and subcontractors subject to Executive Order 11246. The OFCCP will hold EEO-1 data for federal contractors and subcontractors confidential to the maximum extent possible under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Trade Secrets Act. OFCCP will notify contractors of any FOIA request for their EEO-1 pay and hours worked data. If a contractor objects to disclosure, OFCCP will not disclose the data if OFCCP determines that the contractor's objection is valid. FOIA Exemptions 3 and 4 recognize the value of this data and provide, in combination with the Trade Secrets Act, the necessary tools to appropriately protect it from public disclosure.
The EEOC maintains robust security protections for EEO-1 data and consistently reviews and updates its security protocols. The EEOC's cybersecurity and privacy programs comply with the Federal Information Security Modernization Act and are based on NIST Special Publication 800-53, Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations. The implemented security and privacy controls protect organizational operations and information system assets against a diverse set of threats, including malicious attacks, natural disasters, structural failures, and human error.
The hosting service for the EEO-1 data collection system provides a defense-in-depth security program with many layers of security utilizing different physical and software components in order to provide a high level of protection. Security monitoring-both inside and outside the network-ensures the detection and rejection of unauthorized use. These security controls and measures are monitored continuously with automated vulnerability and compliance software suites.
The EEOC has a current privacy impact assessment for the EEO-1, which is published on the EEOC website for employers that file the EEO-1 report, at: https://www.eeoc.gov/employers/eeo1survey/privacyimpact.cfm
The EEOC's information technology system will be fully compliant with recently revised Circular A-130 well before the first deadline for the new EEO-1 in March 2018. The privacy impact assessment for the EEO-1 will be updated to address these revisions.
The EEOC only publishes large-scale aggregated EEO-1 data in a way that fully protects employer confidentiality and employee privacy. At a minimum, the EEOC does not publish data if it does not include at least three firms, or if one firm represents more than 80 percent of the data. The EEOC will ensure that any published aggregate data based on the revised EEO-1 will continue to protect the privacy and confidentiality of individual employers and employees.
For purposes of self-assessment, employers can use published aggregated data to compare or benchmark their own data with data from other employers in their industry or geographical area.
 Asaf Levanon, Paula England, Paul Allison, Occupational Feminization and Pay: Assessing Casual Dynamics Using 1950-2000 U.S. Census Data, Social Forces 88(2) (Dec. 2009), http://statisticalhorizons.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/88.2.levanon.pdf.
 Moreal Hernandez and Derek R. Avery, Getting the Short End of the Stick: Racial Bias in Salary Negotiations, MIT Sloan Management Review (June 15, 2016), http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/getting-the-short-end-of-the-stick-racial-bias-in-salary-negotiations.